A gene is the basic physical & functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to lớn make molecules called proteins. However, many genes bởi not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. An international research effort called the Human Genome Project, which worked to determine the sequence of the human genome & identify the genes that it contains, estimated that humans have between 20,000 và 25,000 genes.Bạn vẫn xem: Genetic makeup là gì
Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute khổng lồ each person’s unique physical features.
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Scientists keep track of genes by giving them chất lượng names. Because ren names can be long, genes are also assigned symbols, which are short combinations of letters (and sometimes numbers) that represent an abbreviated version of the ren name. For example, a gen on chromosome 7 that has been associated with cystic fibrosis is called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; its symbol is CFTR.
Genes are made up of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.
Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine
For more information about genes:
More information about how genetic conditions và genes are named is also available from heavencrossrecords.net Genetics.
The Centre for Genetics Education offers a fact sheet that introduces genes & chromosomes.
The Tech Museum of Innovation at Stanford University describes genes and how they were discovered.
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